Как сортировать и куда выкидывать мусор с переходом на раздельный сбор?

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00:18 21/06/2019

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Мария Осина
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Фото: Shutterstock.com/ Nutthaseth Van

С 1 января 2020 года Москва досрочно переходит на раздельный сбор мусора. Соответствующее постановление о реализации мероприятий было принято на заседании президиума правительства Москвы под руководством мэра Сергея Собянина. АиФ.ru поговорил с руководителем экологического движения «Раздельный сбор» Татьяной Нагорской о том, как будет работать новая система и почему так важно внедрять раздельный сбор мусора.

Вопрос-ответ

Нужен ли налог на пластик?

Зачем нужен раздельный сбор мусора?

По данным Greenpeace, ежегодно в России образуется 70 миллионов тонн твердых бытовых отходов. Они состоят из искусственных материалов, которые разлагаются на свалках сотни лет. Раздельный сбор отходов (РСО) призван решить проблему разрастающихся свалок и мусорных полигонов. С его помощью можно переработать до 70% твердых бытовых отходов (ТБО): это, например, различные виды пластика, полистирол, стеклянные и жестяные банки и бутылки. Пока же в России перерабатывается лишь 7-8%.

«Система раздельного сбора отходов должна быть частью большой стратегии по управлению отходами, где в первую очередь нужно предусматривать меры по предотвращению образования отходов, замене одноразового на многоразовое, а также отказ от композитной многокомпонентной упаковки, переход на материалы, которые легче переработать. Планирование раздельного сбора отходов обязательно должно сопровождаться планированием изменения количества и морфологического состава отходов. РСО должен быть понятным и прозрачным для населения», — поясняет Татьяна Нагорская.

Где установят контейнеры и какой мусор в них будут собирать?

К 1 января 2020 года во дворах, на контейнерных площадках многоквартирных домов и в учреждениях социальной сферы установят контейнеры для вторичного сырья: пластика, стекла, картона, бумаги, металла (алюминиевых банок). Пищевые и остальные отходы, не входящие в этот перечень, можно будет по-прежнему выбрасывать в обычные контейнеры.

В планах также установка контейнеров для вторсырья на территориях магазинов и других объектов сферы торговли и обслуживания, этот вопрос еще будет прорабатываться, как сообщается на официальном сайте мэра Москвы.

Хоронить или сжигать? Как покончить с нелегальными мусорными свалками

Подробнее

Что будет с мусоропроводами с введением раздельного сбора мусора?

По словам Татьяны Нагорской, отказаться от мусоропроводов при строительстве многоквартирного дома нельзя. Согласно СНИПам, мусоропровод должен быть. Однако экологи советуют отказаться от их использования. Как отмечает Нагорская, в некоторых новых домах мусоропроводы просто не открывают, в каких-то домах — заваривают с согласия жильцов. «В старых домах их нужно заваривать, причем причина не только в отходах: это также и крысы, и неприятный запах», — говорит она.

Как будет работать система раздельного сбора отходов?

«Сроки внедрения и успех зависят от доверия населения. Поэтому очень важно уделять внимание освещению проекта. Что касается самой схемы РСО, то, конечно, когда разные виды вторсырья собираются в разные контейнеры, их качество выше, чем когда все вторсырье собирается в один контейнер. Плюсы двухпоточной системы в легком вовлечении жителей, но и минусы — в меньшей ответственности. Двухпоточная система требует постоянных разъяснительных мероприятий, логистически все вторсырье едет в одну сторону, на единую площадку досортировки. В то же время многопоточная система позволяет логистически развести потоки на более раннем этапе», — объясняет Нагорская.

Она добавляет, что в стране уже есть опыт внедрения РСО и очень важно учесть его. «Думаю, что штрафы или жесткий контроль — это хорошие меры, но только когда система уже жизнеспособна. На этапе внедрения я бы не вводила никаких карательных мер для жителей, только для юридических лиц и управляющих компаний», — заключает эксперт.

Статья по теме

Опасные и особо опасные отходы. Проблема или вопрос?

Как правильно сортировать отходы?

Перед тем как отправлять в контейнер пластик, его нужно помыть, убрать этикетку и высушить, а затем — спрессовать. Также обращайте внимание на маркировку: перерабатывается твердый пластик с маркировкой в треугольнике с цифрами 1, 2, 4, 5, 6.

Керамическую посуду, оптическое стекло и хрусталь сдавать нельзя, поскольку они не перерабатываются вместе с «тарным» стеклом: банками и бутылками.

Из металла для переработки принимаются алюминиевые банки. Если человек намерен начать сортировать мусор уже сейчас, то пункты, где принимают разного вида отходы, можно отыскать на интерактивной карте Recyclemap.

Как работает система раздельного сбора мусора в других странах?

Лучше всего система раздельного сбора организована в Швеции. В стране перерабатывается 99% всех отходов. Из них 50,6% используют вторично, 48,6% сжигают для производства электроэнергии и лишь 0,8% отправляют на полигоны. В лидерах также Япония: там благодаря закону, обязывающему промышленность и домохозяйства отделять полимеры от другого мусора, перерабатывается до 83% пластика.

В США действует программа «RRR — Reduce, Reuse and Recycle» («Уменьшить потребление. Использовать снова. Переработать»). К концу 2020 года в стране намерены добиться переработки 20 миллионов тонн мусора в год. Раздельно сортировать мусор население мотивируют с помощью дифференцированной системы оплаты за вывоз ТБО.

В Германии действует система селективного сбора мусора: везде стоят контейнеры для разных видов отходов, а аптеки принимают на переработку просроченные лекарства. Всего в Германии перерабатывают 66% ТБО. Контейнеры разных цветов для разных видов мусора используются во Франции, Италии и многих других европейских странах.

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